Many translated example sentences containing "Persian" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Übersetzung im Kontext von „persian“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: persian gulf, persian empire, old persian, persian rugs, persian carpets. Die persische Sprache (persisch زبان فارسی, DMG zabān-e fārsī) ist eine plurizentrische A SHORT SKETCH OF THE GRAMMAR OF PERSIAN // The "International Journal of American Linguistics," VOLUME 30, NUMBER 1, JANUARY.
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Die persische Sprache ist eine plurizentrische Sprache in Zentral- und Südwestasien. Sie gehört zum iranischen Zweig der indogermanischen Sprachfamilie und ist Amtssprache in Iran, Afghanistan und Tadschikistan. Die persische Sprache (persisch زبان فارسی, DMG zabān-e fārsī) ist eine plurizentrische A SHORT SKETCH OF THE GRAMMAR OF PERSIAN // The "International Journal of American Linguistics," VOLUME 30, NUMBER 1, JANUARY. Persian Definition: Something that is Persian belongs or relates to the ancient kingdom of Persia, or | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele. Übersetzung im Kontext von „persian“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: persian gulf, persian empire, old persian, persian rugs, persian carpets. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Persian im Online-Wörterbuch indyradio.nu (Deutschwörterbuch). Persian Bedeutung, Definition Persian: 1. belonging to or relating to Iran, its people, or its language 2. a person from Iran 3. the main. Many translated example sentences containing "Persian" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
Persian Bedeutung, Definition Persian: 1. belonging to or relating to Iran, its people, or its language 2. a person from Iran 3. the main. Übersetzung im Kontext von „persian“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: persian gulf, persian empire, old persian, persian rugs, persian carpets. Beginner's Persian (Iranian Farsi) with Online Audio (Hippocrene Beginner's) | Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für.
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Kitab al-Tanbih wa-l-Ishraf in Arabic. Travels in Asia and Africa, We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans.
They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principal mountain is called Kuh Sulayman.
It is told that the prophet Sulayman [Solomon] ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, which was then covered with darkness, returned without entering it.
Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia. Retrieved 10 June Encyclopedia of World History 6th ed. The Houghton Mifflin Company.
The Achaemenid clan possibly ruled over the Persian tribes already in the 9th century B. Persianism in Antiquity. Franz Steiner Verlag.
London: Dorling Kindersley. Leo Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization. University of Chicago Press.
Of the numerous Iranian tribes who had settled in Iranian plateau, it was the Medes Finally in B. Their combined forces succeeded in bringing the Assyrian Empire down, thus eliminating a power that had ruled with ruthless efficiency over the Middle East for several centuries.
Achaemenes q. Psychology Press. The inscriptions of Darius I All this evidence shows that the name arya "Iranian" was a collective definition, denoting peoples Although, up until the end of the Parthian period, Iranian identity had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value, it did not yet have a political import.
The idea of an "Iranian" empire or kingdom is a purely Sasanian one. It was in the Sasanian period, then, that the pre-Islamic Iranian identity reached the height of its fulfilment in every aspect: political, religious, cultural, and linguistic with the growing diffusion of Middle Persian.
Its main ingredients were the appeal to a heroic past that was identified or confused with little-known Achaemenid origins Walter de Gruyter.
The Pahlavi language also known as Middle Persian was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty from 3rd to 7th century A.
Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country. However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian.
In Schmitt, R. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages.
New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries, is today spoken widely in and outside Iran in a number of variants.
In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc.
The Lurs speak an aberrant form of Archaic Persian John Wiley and Sons. Middle Persian was the official language of the Sassanian dynasty The Jews of Arab Lands.
Jewish Publication Society. Ashgate Publishing. Cambridge History of Iran. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. People unable to speak properly. Refers to non-Arabs.
Connotes cultural and ethnic inferiority. Adjectival form: ajami. Principally used to designate and eventually synonymous with Persians. Cornell University Press.
Early New Persian". Arabic Elements in Persian". Iran under the Safavids. Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?
Safavid to Qajar Periods". Safavid inscriptions on the pre Islamic monuments e. An unexpected burst of activity in secular architecture marks the 17th century.
Bridges which have wider functions than carrying traffic were built, reviving Sasanian custom Qajar decoration is usually unmistakable. Simple, rather strident tiled geometric or epigraphic designs in small glazed bricks were especially popular.
Typical of comparable nationalist historiographies in the early part of the 20th century e. Moreover, promotion of the ancient past as a wholesale propaganda tool in the service of the state engendered nationalistic pride that proved detrimental to dispassionate historical inquiry.
Pahlavi, before World War II". History in the Qajar and Pahlavi Periods". Retrieved 1 May University of Cambridge.
Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 16 July Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon. American Oriental Society. Essex University.
Archived from the original PDF on 14 October Retrieved 29 September In Vinogradov, V. Jazyki narodov SSSR.
The Tat language belongs to the Southwest group of Iranian languages and is close in its grammatical structure and lexical content to the Persian and Tajik languages.
Global Vision Publishing House. The contemporary Tats are the descendants of an Iranian-speaking population sent out of Persia by the dynasty of the Sasanids in the fifth to sixth centuries.
Persian Grammar: history and state of its study. Tat- Persian spoken in the East Caucasus Bloomsbury Publishing. Iranian Languages.
Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Houtsma et al. Brill and London: Luzac, — January Oxford University Press published 4 March : — It is a comparison of the verbal systems of three varieties of Persian—standard Persian, Tat, and Tajik Iran and the Caucasus.
Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, Part 3, Volume 7. Encyclopedia Of Islam. Retrieved 17 July Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 13 November Library of Congress.
August Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 5 June The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. Attitudes Toward Hazaragi.
In Yarshater, Ehsan ed. United States: Columbia University. World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 August Greece: I.
Legendary Greece: II. Grecian history to the reign of Peisistratus at Athens. A History of Islamic Societies. Foreign Influence on Ancient India.
Northern Book Centre. Iranian languages and scripts 2 Documentation". Retrieved 30 December Understanding Architecture. Land of Lion, Land of Sun.
How to study architecture. Dodd, Mead and Company. Persian Architecture. Gardens of Persia. Kales Press. Mays Ancient Water Technologies.
Reza Moghtader; Minouch Yavari Persian Garden: Echoes Of Paradise. Mage Publishers. How to know oriental rugs, a handbook.
Appleton and Company. Persian rugs. Ferrier The Arts of Persia. Yale University Press. First millennium C. Islamic art and spirituality.
SUNY Press. Green; Josephine Thrall The American history and encyclopedia of music. Shapur 15 November In the Islamic Period".
Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 9 March Iranian peoples. Aimaqs Hazaras. Ancient Iranian peoples. Indo-Iranians Proto-Indo-Europeans. Iranian languages.
Ethnic groups in Iran. Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text CS1: long volume value Articles containing Arabic-language text CS1 Arabic-language sources ar CS1 uses Persian-language script fa CS1 Persian-language sources fa Harv and Sfn no-target errors CS1 errors: missing periodical Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Old Persian ca.
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The first poems of the Persian language, a language historically called Dari, emerged in Afghanistan. He flourished in the 10th century, when the Samanids were at the height of their power.
His reputation as a court poet and as an accomplished musician and singer has survived, although little of his poetry has been preserved.
Among his lost works is versified fables collected in the Kalila wa Dimna. The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture.
New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca , a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least the 19th century.
This is the language of the 10th to 12th centuries, which continued to be used as literary language and lingua franca under the " Persianized " Turko-Mongol dynasties during the 12th to 15th centuries, and under restored Persian rule during the 16th to 19th centuries.
Persian during this time served as lingua franca of Greater Persia and of much of the Indian subcontinent. Despite Anatolia having been ruled at various times prior to the Middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the Sasanian Empire.
Centuries later, however, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire.
It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole "official language" under the Mughal emperors.
The Bengal Sultanate witnessed an influx of Persian scholars, lawyers, teachers and clerics. Thousands of Persian books and manuscripts were published in Bengal.
The period of the reign of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Azam Shah , is described as the "golden age of Persian literature in Bengal".
Its stature was illustrated by the Sultan's own correspondence and collaboration with the Persian poet Hafez ; a poem which can be found in the Divan of Hafez today.
Dobhashi Bengali was patronised and given official status under the Sultans of Bengal ; whose first language was Persian, and was the most popular literary form used by Bengalis during the pre-colonial period, irrespective of their religion.
Following the defeat of the Hindu Shahi dynasty, classical Persian was established as a courtly language in the region during the late 10th century under Ghaznavid rule over the northwestern frontier of the subcontinent.
Beginning in , though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu also historically known as Hindustani , Punjabi and Sindhi.
In the 19th century, under the Qajar dynasty , the dialect that is spoken in Tehran rose to prominence. There was still substantial Arabic vocabulary, but many of these words have been integrated into Persian phonology and grammar.
In addition, under the Qajar rule numerous Russian , French , and English terms entered the Persian language, especially vocabulary related to technology.
The first official attentions to the necessity of protecting the Persian language against foreign words, and to the standardization of Persian orthography , were under the reign of Naser ed Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in The ultimate goal was to prevent books from being printed with wrong use of words.
According to the executive guarantee of this association, the government was responsible for wrongfully printed books.
The first academy for the Persian language was founded on 20 May , under the name Academy of Iran. It was established by the initiative of Reza Shah Pahlavi , and mainly by Hekmat e Shirazi and Mohammad Ali Foroughi , all prominent names in the nationalist movement of the time.
The academy was a key institution in the struggle to re-build Iran as a nation-state after the collapse of the Qajar dynasty.
During the s and s, the academy led massive campaigns to replace the many Arabic , Russian , French , and Greek loanwords whose widespread use in Persian during the centuries preceding the foundation of the Pahlavi dynasty had created a literary language considerably different from the spoken Persian of the time.
This became the basis of what is now known as "Contemporary Standard Persian". All these three varieties are based on the classic Persian literature and its literary tradition.
There are also several local dialects from Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan which slightly differ from the standard Persian. Persian-speaking peoples of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan can understand one another with a relatively high degree of mutual intelligibility.
The following are some languages closely related to Persian, or in some cases are considered dialects:. More distantly related branches of the Iranian language family include Kurdish and Balochi.
Historically, Persian distinguished length. Numerous other instances exist. According to most studies on the subject e.
However, there are studies e. There are also some studies that consider quality and quantity to be both active in the Iranian system such as Toosarvandani That offers a synthetic analysis including both quality and quantity, which often suggests that Modern Persian vowels are in a transition state between the quantitative system of Classical Persian and a hypothetical future Iranian language, which will eliminate all traces of quantity and retain quality as the only active feature.
The length distinction is still strictly observed by careful reciters of classic-style poetry for all varieties including Tajik. Suffixes predominate Persian morphology , though there are a small number of prefixes.
In other words, in Persian, pronouns are gender neutral. Normal declarative sentences are structured as S PP O V : sentences have optional subjects , prepositional phrases , and objects followed by a compulsory verb.
Persian makes extensive use of word building and combining affixes, stems, nouns and adjectives. Persian frequently uses derivational agglutination to form new words from nouns, adjectives, and verbal stems.
New words are extensively formed by compounding — two existing words combining into a new one. While having a lesser influence on Arabic  and other languages of Mesopotamia and its core vocabulary being of Middle Persian origin,  New Persian contains a considerable number of Arabic lexical items,    which were Persianized  and often took a different meaning and usage than the Arabic original.
Persian loanwords of Arabic origin especially include Islamic terms. The Arabic vocabulary in other Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages is generally understood to have been copied from New Persian, not from Arabic itself.
John R. Perry, in his article Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic , estimates that about 24 percent of an everyday vocabulary of 20, words in current Persian, and more than 25 percent of the vocabulary of classical and modern Persian literature, are of Arabic origin.
The text frequency of these loan words is generally lower and varies by style and topic area. It may approach 25 percent of a text in literature.
The inclusion of Mongolic and Turkic elements in the Persian language should also be mentioned,  not only because of the political role a succession of Turkic dynasties played in Iranian history, but also because of the immense prestige Persian language and literature enjoyed in the wider non-Arab Islamic world, which was often ruled by sultans and emirs with a Turkic background.
The Turkish and Mongolian vocabulary in Persian is minor in comparison to that of Arabic and these words were mainly confined to military, pastoral terms and political sector titles, administration, etc.
Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially other Indo-European languages such as Armenian ,  Urdu, Bengali and to a lesser extent Hindi; the latter three through conquests of Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan invaders;  Turkic languages such as Ottoman Turkish , Chagatai , Tatar , Turkish ,  Turkmen , Azeri ,  Uzbek , and Karachay-Balkar ;  Caucasian languages such as Georgian ,  and to a lesser extent, Avar and Lezgin ;  Afro-Asiatic languages like Assyrian List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Arabic , particularly Bahrani Arabic ;   and even Dravidian languages indirectly especially Telugu and Brahui ; as well as Austronesian languages such as Indonesian and Malay.
Persian has also had a significant lexical influence, via Turkish, on Albanian , Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , and Serbo-Croatian , particularly as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Use of occasional foreign synonyms instead of Persian words can be a common practice in everyday communications as an alternative expression.
In some instances in addition to the Persian vocabulary, the equivalent synonyms from multiple foreign languages can be used. The vast majority of modern Iranian Persian and Dari text is written with the Arabic script.
Tajiki, which is considered by some linguists to be a Persian dialect influenced by Russian and the Turkic languages of Central Asia ,   is written with the Cyrillic script in Tajikistan see Tajik alphabet.
There also exist several romanization systems for Persian. Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written using the Persian alphabet which is a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet , which uses different pronunciation and additional letters not found in Arabic language.
After the Arab conquest of Persia , it took approximately years which is referred to as Two Centuries of Silence in Iran, before Persians adopted the Arabic script in place of the older alphabet.
The reader must determine the word from context. The Arabic system of vocalization marks known as harakat is also used in Persian, although some of the symbols have different pronunciations.
This system is not used in mainstream Persian literature; it is primarily used for teaching and in some but not all dictionaries. There are several letters generally only used in Arabic loanwords.
These letters are pronounced the same as similar Persian letters. The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet:. The Persian alphabet also modifies some letters of the Arabic alphabet.
The International Organization for Standardization has published a standard for simplified transliteration of Persian into Latin, ISO , titled "Information and documentation — Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters — Part 3: Persian language — Simplified transliteration"  but the transliteration scheme is not in widespread use.
Another Latin alphabet, based on the Common Turkic Alphabet , was used in Tajikistan in the s and s. The alphabet was phased out in favor of Cyrillic in the late s.
It is most commonly used in chat , emails and SMS applications. The Cyrillic script was introduced for writing the Tajik language under the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in the late s, replacing the Latin alphabet that had been used since the October Revolution and the Persian script that had been used earlier.
After , materials published in Persian in the Persian script were banned from the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Farsi.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 17 November For other uses, see Farsi disambiguation. Western Iranian language. Language family.
Writing system. Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian including dialects.
Persian Linguasphere. More than 1,, speakers. Between , — 1,, speakers. Between , — , speakers.
Between 25, — , speakers. Play media. Main article: Old Persian. Main article: Middle Persian. See also: List of Persian poets and authors.
Main article: Persian language in South Asia. See also: Persian and Urdu and Dobhashi. Main article: Persian phonology.
Main article: Persian grammar. Main article: Persian vocabulary. Main article: Persian alphabet. Main article: Romanization of Persian. Main article: Tajik alphabet.
Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars. Multilingual Matters. Retrieved 7 November People Groups. Islam in Post-Soviet Russia.
Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Retrieved 2 January There are numerous reasons to study Persian: for one thing, Persian is an important language of the Middle East and Central Asia, spoken by approximately 70 million native speakers and roughly million people worldwide.
Official documents, correspondence, and texts, as well as text-books, must be in this language and script. However, the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian.
Glottolog 3. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan. Psychology Press. There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Farsi — previously dominant in the educational and administrative system Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies.
All this affected translation activities in Persian, seriously undermining the international character of the language. The problem was compounded in modern times by several factors, among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union, with Uzbek and Russian languages, as well as the emergence of a language reform movement in Iran which paid no attention to the consequences of its pronouncements and actions for the language as a whole.
Central Asian Survey. Tajikistan in the new Central Asia. Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe. Consequently the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine.
Tajiks within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University SamGU academics and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30 per cent of the republic's twenty-two million population, rather than the official figure of 4.
In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period early Islamic times by the name of Dari or Farsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids.
Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc.
It had its origin in Fars the true Persian country from the historical point of view and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran.
Walter de Gruyter. The Pahlavi language also known as Middle Persian was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty from 3rd to 7th century A.
Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country. However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian Moshref Iranian languages and scripts".
In Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization. Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi, but Arabic lexical items predominated for more abstract or abstruse subjects and often replaced their Persian equivalents in polite discourse.
The grammar of New Persian is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Iranian languages and scripts 2 Documentation". Retrieved 30 December Iran and Islam.
In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky. Edinburgh University Press. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 1 June Encyclopedia of literary translation into English.
Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature.
Persian grammar. Cambridge University Press. The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized. Boston: Brill.
Oxford University Press. Comrie, Berard ed. The World's Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 3 October IV I : 27— University of Pennsylvania Press. In Schiffman, Harold ed.
Leiden: Brill. Compendium of the World's Languages 3rd ed. Dodd, Mead. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. It is derived from the word for dar court, lit.
Under the specific historical conditions that have been sketched above, the Dari Middle Persian of the 7th century was developed, within two centuries, to the Dari New Persian that is attested in the earliest specimens of NP poetry in the late 9th century.
Tajik Persian". Retrieved 13 July Excerpt 1: "Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages.
Excerpt 2: New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries. American Oriental Society, Old Persian.
AD — whose official language was Middle Persian. Hence, the entire country used to be called Perse by the ancient Greeks, a practice continued to this day.
The more general designation 'Iran -shahr " derives from Old Iranian aryanam Khshathra ' the realm of Aryans'.